(Luke 10: 33 – 34) A PASSAGE MARKED BY JÓZEF OR WIKTORIA ULMA
“But a Samaritan, as he journeyed, came to where he was, and when he saw him, he had compassion. He went to him and bound up his wounds, pouring on oil and wine. Then he set him on his own animal and brought him to an inn and took care of him.”
IN THE PHOTOGRAPH: WIKTORIA ULMA, JÓZEF ULMA
BASIA ROSENBERG FROM PRZEWORSK, ENTRY IN A PRIVATE JOURNAL, DATED SEPTEMBER 2, 1939
“The war. It was continuously spoken about, but no one believed it would actually break out. (…) My nerves are strung. How can I stand it? People are sealing their windows, everyone wants to defend themselves, but does not know how to do it. Oh, God! Have mercy upon us. What comes next...?”
IN THE PHOTOGRAPH: TRAFFIC ON THE WOODEN BRIDGE OVER THE SAN RIVER. PRZEMYŚL, 1939 – 1945. FROM THE COLLECTIONS OF THE NATIONAL DIGITAL ARCHIVES
EDWARD SZPYTMA FROM MARKOWA
“In bright days, when it did not rain (…) smoke plumes could be seen – they came from fires made by the fugitive Jews who wanted to get some warmth, baked potatoes. Before the war, such a view used to make one think of a good time, but now these evenings were not fun – they were a life necessity, a daily struggle for survival.”
IN THE PHOTOGRAPH: MARKOWA, PHOTO TAKEN BY JÓZEF ULMA FROM THE COLLECTIONS OF WŁADYSŁAW ULMA
ABRAHAM SEGAL – THE SURVIVOR
“He accompanied me, he taught me to pray, he gave me a prayer book so that I learned »Our Father, who art in heaven… and forgive us our trespasses, as we forgive those who trespass against us«.”
IN THE PHOTOGRAPH: BAR MITZVAH OF ABRAHAM SEGAL, PRAGUE, DECEMBER 1945 FROM THE COLLECTIONS OF ABRAHAM SEGAL
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April 8, 1897Jan Żabiński was born
Zoologist and author of numerous scientific and popular works; director of the Warsaw Zoo. Under the German occupation he took part in military actions of the conspiracy movement and in the Warsaw uprising. During the Holocaust, he and his wife Antonina rescued many Jews by helping them escape from the ghetto and hiding them in the zoo manged by them. Among the rescued were the sculptor Magdalena Gross and Rachela Auerbach. The Żabiński couple were recognised as Righteous Among the Nations.
April 9, 1968Zofia Kossak died
Polish writer, social and charity activist; author of the brochure Protest!, published in August 1942, in which she called for opposition to the Nazi Germany’s plan to exterminate the Jews. She was a co-founder, together with Wanda Krahelska, of the Żegota Council to Aid Jews. She died in Bielsko-Biała.
April 10, 1994Władysława, Wojciech, Helena and Zofia Twardzicki recognised as Righteous among the Nations
During the Holocaust, the Twardzicki family living in Bierówka near Jasło saved Gołda Weic from extermination.
April 14, 1917Tadeusz Kern-Jędrychowski was born
Polish officer of the Polish Army, member of the Home Army and Warsaw insurgent. During the Holocaust, he saved Józef Kiselhoff from extermination.
April 16, 1963The Czeżowski family recognised as Righteous among the Nations
Tadeusz, Antonina and Teresa Czeżowski saved 8 people of Jewish descent in Vilnius: Tamara Wolfson, Chaim Epsztajn, Rachela Gurwicz-Kapłan as well as members of the Wołkow and Fessel families.
April 18, 1989Władysława, Karol and Stefania Szelka recognised as Righteous among the Nations
Władysław, Karol and Stefania Szelka from Niebieszczany near Sanok saved Leon Penner from extermination.
April 19, 1943Outbreak of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
The first uprising in German-occupied Europe, the largest military action in occupied Poland since the September Campaign and the most significant organised opposition of the Jewish population doomed to extermination.
April 20, 1971Miron Lisikiewicz recognised as Righteous among the Nations
During the Holocaust, Miron Lisikiewicz from Krosno saved Reba Dworzecka and Sarah Frydman from extermination.
April 20, 1910Jan Dobraczyński was born
Writer and columnist; participant of the September Campaign and the Warsaw Uprising; brigadier general. Member of the Żegota Council to Aid Jews; responsible aid to Jewish children. Recognised as Righteous among the Nations.
April 24, 1914Jan Karski was born
Born Jan Romuald Kozielewski. Courier of the Polish underground state and government in exile, sent on a mission to inform Western Europe about the extermination of the Jewish nation in Poland occupied by Germany. Recognised as Righteous Among the Nations.
April 24, 2015Władysław Bartoszewski died
Historian, columnist, journalist and writer; social activist and politician; diplomat. During the German occupation, he was a member of the Polish resistance; collaborated with Żegota. Recognised as Righteous among the Nations.
April 25, 1996Michał Róg recognised as Righteous among the Nations
During the German occupation he saved Jadwiga Zucker and Szymon Einhorn from extermination.
April 25, 1891Jan Cwynar was born
Jan Cwynar and his wife Helena, who lived in Markowa, took in a teenage Jew, Abraham Segal from Łańcut.
April 26, 2019Abraham Segal died
Saved thanks to the Skrobacz family from Krzemienica and the Cwynar family from Markowa. After the war he emigrated to Israel and settled in a kibbutz in Haifa. He was involved in commemorating the inhabitants of Markowa who rescued Jews. A friend of the Museum of Poles Saving Jews.
April 27, 1940Establishment of the Auschwitz-Birkenau German Nazi death camp
On 27th April 1940 Heinrich Himmler ordered the establishment of the Auschwitz-Birkenau (Oświęcim-Brzezinka) death camp. It is estimated that during the whole period of its functioning, approximately 1.1 million Jews from all over Europe were killed there. Almost 150,000 Poles, about 23,000 Roma, 12,000 Soviet prisoners of war and other nationalities were also killed in this German Nazi concentration camp complex. The total number of victims of the camp is approximately 1.3 million.
April 28, 1968Stanisław Jan Spasiński recognised as Righteous among the Nations
Christian Democratic activist; member of the Warsaw City Council. Fought in the defensive war of 1939; interned in Hungary where he served as the (senior) commander of the camp for civilians. In agreement with the Polish legation in Budapest, he carried out an action of smuggling people across the Hungarian-Yugoslav border. In this way, he saved a group of Polish Jews; in 1944 he helped, among others, members of the Wohl family.
April 28, 1968Maria and Stanisław Wołoszyn recognised as Righteous among the Nations
During the German occupation they saved Jenta and Icchak Nachman in Nisko.
April 29, 1976Stanisława Polańska and Józefa Polańska-Okoń recognised as Righteous among the Nations
They saved Malwina Kanska and her husband in Rudnik nad Sanem during the Holocaust.
May 3, 1982
Wanda and Józef Płachta recognised as Righteous among the Nations
During the German occupation they rescued Herman and Rachela Kass in Rzeszow.
May 3, 2009
Maria and Andrzej Tkacz recognised as Righteous among the Nations
In the village of Łukowe near Lesko, they saved Meilech Segal from extermination.
May 4, 1916
Jadwiga Boczar was born
A lawyer who lived in Rzeszow, at 4 Krakowska Street, during the war and helped Jews. When one of them was arrested by the Gestapo and gave away the hiding place at Boczar’s, she fled to Warsaw. Having settled right next to the ghetto, she continued to help the Jews, this time the Rozenholc siblings. She fought in the Warsaw Uprising.
May 4, 2008
Zofia Pomorska recognised as Righteous among the Nations
During the Holocaust, she rescued Miriam and Meir Szenker, and Lucia Grinszpan in Lubaczow.
May 4, 1918
Przemysław Ogrodziński was born
Politician and diplomat; during World War II he was a member of the Lviv branch of Żegota in which he was the treasurer.
May 5, 1943
General Władysław Sikorski's appeal to help Jews
In his radio speech delivered in London on 5th May 1943, addressed to Poles in German-occupied Poland, General Władysław Sikorski, Prime Minister of the Polish Government in Exile, appealed: ‘The greatest crime in the history of mankind is being committed. I know you’re helping the persecuted Jews to the extent that you can. Thank you, citizens, on my own behalf and on behalf of the Polish Government. I ask you to provide all possible assistance to the Jews in Poland and to try to oppose this terrible cruelty’.
May 8, 1886
Stanisława Bussold was born
During the German occupation she worked as a feldsher and midwife at the Warsaw health centre in Grochowska Street. It was also there that organised financial support to the Jews imprisoned inside the ghetto. In 1942 Bussold was entrusted with taking care of a Jewish girl smuggled out of the ghetto. Stanislawa Bussold became her foster mother. The rescued girl was Elżbieta Bussold and her married name was Ficowska; she was a clerk, social activist and educator as well as an author of books for children and young people.
May 10, 1994
Maria Denasiewicz and Krystyna Denasiewicz-Proszowska recognised as Righteous among the Nations
During the German occupation, Maria and Krystyna Denasiewicz hid Felicia Schwam, whose parents did not survive the Holocaust, in Przemyśl. Felicia was christened and given ‘Aryan’ documents.
May 10, 1926
Alfreda Markowska was born
Polish Romani, known as ‘Romani Sendler’. She rescued nearly 50 Romani and Jewish children.
May 12, 1943
Szmul Zygielbojm’s suicide
Just before his death Szmul Zygielbojm confessed, ‘With my death I wish to express the strongest protest against the passivity with which the world is watching and allowing the extermination of the Jewish people. (…) Since I was unable to do anything during my lifetime, perhaps by my death I shall help to break down the indifference of those who have the possibility now, at the last moment, to save those Polish Jews still alive from certain annihilation’.
May 12, 2008
Irena Sendler died
Social activist, socialist and member of Żegota; she worked in the Children’s Section. Together with her co-workers, she rescued nearly 2,500 children of Jewish origin, smuggling them out of the ghetto and hiding them in orphanages and with Polish families.
May 13, 1901
Witold Pilecki was born
During the German occupation, Cavalry Captain Witold Pilecki volunteered to get imprisoned in the Auschwitz concentration camp in order to learn about its realities. His reports also revealed the mechanisms of the Holocaust.
May 16, 1993
Janina, Eugeniusz, Romuald and Józefa Sochacki recognised as Righteous among the Nations
In Przemyśl, they rescued Jadwiga Haupt, her father Mieczysław and her relatives, Alicja and Halina Halpern, from the Holocaust.
May 20, 1935
Hanna Krall was born
Writer and journalist. During the German occupation she was rescued by a Polish family.
May 22, 1963
First family from Podkarpacie (the Subcarpathian Region) planted a tree at Yad Vashem in Jerusalem
The Czajkowski family from Zręcin near Krosno planted a tree symbolising the Righteous at Yad Vashem in Jerusalem.
May 25, 1988
The Gwozdowicz family recognised as Righteous among the Nations
Matylda and her daughters Helena and Irena saved Lusia Rozen in Przemyśl.
May 26, 1981
Andrzej Klimowicz recognised as Righteous among the Nations
Polish social activist and politician; member of the State National Council (1945-1946), participant in the Warsaw Uprising; Righteous Among the Nations. In 1986 he became the head of the Polish Society of the Righteous Among the Nations.
May 27, 2000
Zofia Sikoń and her children Stanisław Miczyński and Anna Sikoń-Pasek recognised as Righteous among the Nations
In Łukawica near Lesko, they rescued members of the Jewish families Alt, Buchbinder and Brandel from extermination.
May 29, 1995
Józefa and Józef Dudek recognised as Righteous among the Nations
During the Holocaust, in Sonin near Łańcut, they rescued Basia, Szyla and Józek Gurfein from Łańcut, as well as Chilo Melon.
May 30, 1930
Abraham Segal was born
Born in Łańcut, died near Haifa, Israel. During the Holocaust, as a teenager, he was saved by Polish families in Krzemienica and Markowa. He lived to see the end of the German occupation with Helena and Jan Cwynar.
May 30, 1901
Mieczysław Fogg was born
Hit singer and entertainer. During the German occupation he was a Home Army soldier and a Warsaw insurgent. He hid the composer Ivo Wesby, born Ignacy Singer, together with his family. He helped him get a new identity and emigrate to the West. Recognised as Righteous Among the Nations.
June 2, 1982
Jan Karski recognised as Righteous among the Nations
The legendary courier who, on the instructions of the Polish Government in Exile, informed Western countries about the plan of annihilation of Jews being implemented by Nazi Germany. In 1942-1943 he met with representatives of some Western countries and influential bodies. However, he was most often met with incomprehension and indifference. For the rest of his life he was of the opinion that his mission had failed.
June 4, 1963
Bronisława and Szymon Czajkowski recognised as Righteous among the Nations
In Zręcin near Krosno, they rescued members of the Jewish families Lipner, Bergman, Morgenstern and Brajtowicz from extermination. Later on, the title of Righteous was also awarded to their children Jerzy Andrzej, Walerian and Bronisława.
June 6, 1993
Stefania and Jan Chodor as well as Stanisława Bardzik recognised as Righteous among the Nations
During the German occupation, Stefania and Jan Chodorowski and their daughter Stanislawa Bardzik from Kolbuszowa rescued Norman and Lejbusz Salsitz
June 6, 1941
Antoni Ulma was born
One of the six children of Wiktoria and Józef Ulma from Markowa. Killed with his parents and siblings by German military police on 24th March 1944.
June 7, 1990
Helena née Szwed and Jan Zadworny recognised as Righteous among the Nations
During the Holocaust, Helena and Jan Zadworny from Dąbrowa near Lubaczów hid Mosze Lehrer.
June 15, 2009
Włodzimierz Janczewski recognised as Righteous among the Nations
During the German occupation he saved the grandson and daughter-in-law of Ludwig Zamenhof, the famous creator of Esperanto. He provided help in collaboration with Father Marceli Godlewski, another Righteous Among the Nations.
June 16, 1899
Konstanty Rokicki was born
Polish consular officer in Bern. Member of the so-called Ładoś Group which rescued Jews on a large scale during the war and occupation providing them with false passports of Latin American countries.
June 16, 1992
Petronela and Michał Lach as well as Zofia Pawłowska and Józefa Lach recognised as Righteous among the Nations
During the German occupation, the Lach family from Babice near Przemyśl hid Mendel Raps, Rózia Englard and Estera Englard-Korman.
June 17, 1984
Stefania and Stanisław as well as Michał Pyrcak recognised as Righteous among the Nations
During the German occupation in Sanok, Stefania, Stanisław and Michał Pyrcak, together with a person with the surname Kuśmierczyk, whose first name remains unknown, rescued the Jewish families Liberman, Kramer and Forer.
June 20, 1996
Wiktoria and Józef Ulma recognised as Righteous among the Nations
Wiktoria and Józef Ulma from Markowa hid eight Jews from the families Goldman (probably Saul and his sons), Grünfeld and Didner (sisters Gołda and Lea with her daughter). On 24th March 1944, German military policemen shot the hidden Jews and the entire Ulma family; they did not even spare the children.
June 21, 1912
Kazimierz Leski, nom de guerre Bradl, was born
Officer of the Polish Army, engineer, member of the Home Army, counterintelligence officer and Warsaw insurgent. During the Holocaust he saved the lives of Barbara Golde and her son, Dora Katz and Edward Tohari-Warszawski. Recognised as Righteous Among the Nations.
June 22, 2008
The Tysiak family recognised as Righteous among the Nations.
Immigrants from Poland living in France saved Nachum and Miriam Cymbalist during the Holocaust.
June 24, 1914
Jan Karski was born
Polish envoy that was tireless during the war in alarming the West about the crime of the Holocaust being perpetrated by Nazi Germany in the territory of occupied Poland.
June 24, 1913
Juliusz Kühl was born
Polish consular officer, economist and activist of the Jewish diaspora. Member of the so-called Ładoś Group, which was active in Bern, under the leadership of the Polish ambassador Aleksander Ładoś and rescued Jews on a mass scale using false passports of Latin American countries.
June 25, 2000
Stefan Chemicz recognised as Righteous among the Nations
During the Holocaust Stefan Chemicz from Krosno rescued the Jewish family Tischler.
June 27, 1942
Liquidation of the ghetto in Sokołów Małopolski
About 3,000 Jews from Sokołów and the surrounding villages, and also from Lodz, were gathered in the ghetto established on 27th April 1942. After the liquidation of the ghetto in Sokołów they were moved to the ghetto in Rzeszow, and from there they were taken to the death camp in Bełżec.
June 28, 1943
Pacification of the villages of Cisie and Cegłowa
The German military police murdered 25 Poles and 3 Jews in these villages in the county of Minsk (Mazowieckie Province).
June 30, 1911
Czesław Miłosz was born
Poet, prose writer, essayist, literary historian and translator. Winner of the 1980 Nobel Prize in Literature. He and his brother Andrzej, a Home Army soldier, established a transfer point for Jews in Vilnius and helped them find a safe haven. Both brothers were recognised as Righteous among the Nations.
June 30, 1992
The families Świątek, Pacuła and Kiełb recognised as Righteous among the Nations
During the German occupation Maria, Michał, Sebastian and Stefan Świątek, as well as Szymon, Józef and Bronisław Pacuła, an also Józefa, Antoni and Katarzyna Pacuła-Kowal, and Władysław Kiełb hid Józef and Fela (Fajga) Goldman.
July 1, 1907
Lea Didner was born
Inhabitant of Markowa, daughter of Chaim Hersz Goldman and Ettel née Riesenbach, hidden together with her daughter by the Ulma family in Markowa and murdered with them by the German military police on 24th March 1944.
July 5, 1935
Shevah Weiss was born
University professor, politician and diplomat. Former Speaker of the Knesset and ambassador of Israel to Poland. During the German occupation he was rescued by a Polish and a Ukrainian family in Borysław.
July 6, 2000
Władysław Szpilman died
Outstanding pianist and composer living in Warsaw. During the Holocaust, he lost his whole family. He himself was hidden by Poles, including Janina and Andrzej Bogucki, with the support of Witold Lutosławski among others. At a critical moment, his life was spared by a Wehrmacht captain, Wilm Hosenfeld.
July 7, 1986
Józefa and Jan Tereszkiewicz, and also Władysława Tereszkiewicz-Fugiewicz recognised as Righteous among the Nations
During the Holocaust, the Tereszkiewicz family from Chmielnik near Rzeszow helped Róża, Ina and Janina Scheinbach.
July 7, 1935
The wedding of Wiktoria née Niemczak and Józef Ulma
They got married in St. Dorothy parish church in Markowa. After a few years of marriage they had 6 children and expected the 7th descendant. They died together with their children and the Jews they hid from the Goldman, Grünfeld and Didner families, executed by the German military police on 24th March 1944.
July 7, 1942
The liquidation of the Rzeszow ghetto began
Most of the approximately 24,000 Jews imprisoned in the Rzeszow ghetto were murdered in the nearby forests or in the death camp in Bełżec. By the end of 1942 the Rzeszow ghetto was finally liquidated.
July 8, 1969
Irena Schultz recognised as Righteous among the Nations
Journalist, social activist and social worker. A close friend of Irena Sendler and Jadwiga Piotrowska with whom she organised help for Jews in the Warsaw Ghetto. Associate of Żegota.
July 8, 1982
Stefania, Wojciech, Józef, Kazimierz, Feliks and Alfons Remut recognised as Righteous among the Nations
In Dębica, where they lived, they hid Jehuda Ziegler.
July 10, 1973
Jadwiga Strzałecka recognised as Righteous among the Nations
Noblewoman, Countess Zaręba, educator, participant in the Warsaw Uprising. During the war she ran a foster home at Sadyba for war orphans where she also hid Jewish children. Associate of Żegota. Posthumously recognised as Righteous Among the Nations.
July 11, 1907
Feliks Widy-Wirski was born
Physician, librarian and politician, Home Army soldier, participant in the Warsaw Uprising. Recognised as Righteous Among the Nations.
July 12, 1990
Tadeusz Rewilak recognised as Righteous among the Nations
Tadeusz Rewilak from Jasło hid Nachum, Jakub and Cwi Weinberg during the German occupation.
July 13, 2000
Jan Karski died
Lawyer, historian, diplomat and university lecturer. During World War II, an envoy of the Polish Government in Exile; in 1942-1943 he kept informing the West about the Holocaust crime taking place in the areas occupied by Nazi Germany. One of the most recognisable Polish Righteous Among the Nations.
July 16, 1942
The ghetto in Przemyśl was established
It was the largest ghetto in the area of the present Podkarpackie (Subcarpathian) province. As of the date of its closure, the Germans had gathered there about 22,000 Jews from Przemyśl and its surroundings.
July 16, 2001
Zofia Czarnota and Maria Kusz recognised as Righteous among the Nations
During the German occupation, they hid Hanna Stein (Kesten) in Albigowa near Łańcut. Other members of the Kesten family were hidden by the Tereszkiewicz family.
July 17, 1991
The Banasiewicz family recognised as Righteous among the Nations
Magdalena, Franciszek, Tadeusz and Maria Banasiewicz from Orzechowce near Przemyśl saved Jakub and Eugenia Nassan, Salomon and Isaac Erenfreund, Junk Frenkiel, Marcin Teich (Duniński), Feiga Weidenbaum, Edmund Orner, Fela, Szatner, Samuel, Isaac and Berta Reinharz, Józef and Lotka Weindiling from the Holocaust.
July 18, 1936
Stanisława Ulma was born
The eldest of the six children of Wiktoria and Józef Ulma from Markowa. Together with her siblings and parents and the hidden Jews from the Goldman, Grünfeld and Didner families, she was shot dead by the German military police on 24th 1944.
July 18, 1908
Antonina Żabińska was born
Together with her husband Jan Żabiński, she ran the Warsaw Zoological Garden which during the Holocaust became a hiding place for those Jews who managed to escape from the Warsaw Ghetto. In this way, Mr and Mrs Żabiński helped nearly 300 people. Both are recognised as Righteous Among the Nations.
July 21, 1942
The liquidation of the ghetto in Dębica
The ghetto was inhabited by about 12,000 people crowded in relatively small area. Its liquidation continued until April 1943.
July 23, 1942
First transport of prisoners to the Treblinka death camp
The total number of victims of the German Nazi death camp in Treblinka was about 800,000.
July 24, 1909
Władysław Smólski was born
Author and playwright. As soon as the Germans established the ghetto in Warsaw, he tried to help the Jews imprisoned there. Associate of Żegota. Recognised as Righteous among the Nations.
July 26, 1974
Jan Żabiński died
Outstanding zoologist, author of scientific and popular works; for many years the director of the Warsaw Zoo. During the German occupation, he and his wife Antonina hid hundreds of Jews in the zoo, first helping them to get out of the Warsaw Ghetto. Both were recognised as Righteous Among the Nations.
July 27, 1944
The end of the German occupation in Markowa
The Red Army marched into the village. On that day, the Weltz family, rescued by the Szylars, and Abraham Segal, who had been living with the Cwynars, came out of hiding.
July 27, 1942
Commencement of the liquidation of the ghetto in Przemyśl
During the liquidation operations (also on 31st July and 3rd August) a total number of over 12,000 people were either murdered by the Germans on the spot or transported to the death camp in Bełżec.
July 28, 1942
The establishment of the Jewish Combat Organization (ŻOB)
Underground armed resistance movement of Polish Jews; best known among Jewish resistance movements during World War II. Its first commander was Mordechaj Anielewicz.
July 28, 1943
Jan Karski with a mission to the President of the United States
Envoy of the Polish Government in Exile; delivered a report of the Polish underground concerning the German occupation of Poland and the extermination of the Jewish population to Franklin Delano Roosevelt.
August 1, 1944
Outbreak of the Warsaw Uprising
Armed liberation revolt of the inhabitants of occupied Warsaw and the whole country. Many of the fighters were later on recognised as Righteous Among the Nations, e.g. Irena Sendler, Władysław Bartoszewski, Zofia Kossak, Mieczysław Fogg, Aleksander Kamiński, Jan Żabiński and others.
August 3, 1942
Deportations from the Markowa area to the Pełkinie camp
Transit camp for prisoners of war in Pełkinie near Przeworsk, in operation from 1941, was the place of detention of the Jewish population from the occupied county of Jarosław. Eventually, the Germans took most of them to the death camp in Bełżec or murdered in the nearby forests.
August 7, 1942
Janusz Korczak was killed
Outstanding pedagogue, education methodologist, creator of an original system for working with children based on partnership and self-upbringing. A pioneer in the field of the protection of children’s rights. He was killed in the Treblinka extermination camp, together with 200 Jewish children and employees of the orphanage which he ran. He stayed with his orphans till the end having rejected an opportunity to save his own life.
August 8, 1999
Stefan, Karolina and Zofia Barutowicz recognised as Righteous among the Nations
During the German occupation, the Barutowicz family from Grębów near Tarnobrzeg saved the Jewish Lichtman couple and their son Dawid.
August 10, 1889
Zofia Kossak was born
Writer, right-wing social activist, creator and member of the Front for the Rebirth of Poland. During the Holocaust, she and Wanda Krahelska founded the Żegota Council to Aid Jews. She saved the lives of many Jews, including Maurycy Gelber, and Ewa and Janina Feldman. Recognised as Righteous Among the Nations.
August 11, 1942
Protest! by Zofia Kossak was published in Warsaw
A clandestine leaflet made in 5,000 copies and distributed in the streets of Warsaw. Its author was Zofia Kossak, a Catholic writer and activist. In this way, she condemned the extermination of the Jewish nation in the occupied Polish territory commenced by the German occupying forces. At the same time, she called on Catholic circles for empathy and firm opposition to the tragedy taking place.
August 14, 1904
Jan Rutkiewicz was born
Doctor and socio-political activist. During the war he collaborated with Żegota. Together with his wife Natalia, he was recognized as the Righteous Among the Nations.
August 19, 1953
Establishment of the Yad Vashem Institute in Jerusalem
Established by the Israeli Knesset. Since 1963 it has been awarding the title Righteous Among the Nations to those who during the Holocaust helped Jews doomed to extermination to survive.
August 23, 1944
Henryk Sławik was killed
Polish socialist activist; journalist from Silesia. He saved about 5,000 Jews in Hungary from extermination together with a Hungarian diplomat and friend, Józef Antall. He was murdered in the German Nazi concentration camp in Mauthausen-Gusen. Recognised as Righteous Among the Nations.
European Day of Remembrance for Victims of Stalinism and Nazism
Proclaimed by the European Parliament in 2008, on the anniversary of the signing of the 1939 Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact between the Soviet Union and Germany, which divided Europe into two totalitarian zones. The aim of the day is to preserve the memory of the victims of mass deportations and exterminations, and at the same time rooting democracy more firmly and reinforcing peace and stability in Europe.
August 26, 1966
Władysława Laryssa Choms died
Founder of the Lviv branch of the Żegota Council to Aid Jews in 1943. Recognised as Righteous Among the Nations.
August 28, 1909
Leopold Socha was born
Sewage worker from Lviv; provided helped to 10 Jews for which he was posthumously recognised as a Righteous Among the Nations. Hero of the film In Darkness directed by Agnieszka Holland.
August 30, 1999
Julia, Józef and Janina Bar recognised as Righteous among the Nations
Julia, Józef and Janina (Czarnota) Bars from Markowa near Łańcut hid Józef, Ida, Joel, Mania and Genia Riesenbach during the German occupation.
August 30, 1988
Ludwika and Jan Barut, Jadwiga Gocyła-Urbańska and Stanisław Urbański recognised as Righteous among the Nations
The Barut and Urbański families from the Huta Polańska near Krosno helped Józef Strenger and his 10-year-old daughter Gołda.
August 31, 1994
The Sambora family recognised as Righteous among the Nations
During the Holocaust Anna and Ludwik Sambora, and Anna’s children Eugeniusz Walichnowski and Teresa Sokołowska-Walichnowska in Jodłowa near Jasło rescued Malka and Abram Fenichel as well as Lea Charasz.
September 1, 1939
Outbreak of the Second World War
On that day Nazi Germany attacked Poland beginning the 6-year-long occupation of the land of the Second Polish Republic. World War II claimed the lives of about 6,000,000 Polish citizens, including about 3,000,000 Polish Jews.
September 4, 1979
Stanisław Wincenty Dobrowolski recognised as Righteous among the Nations
The first chief of the Krakow branch of the Żegota Council to Aid Jews; he also collaborated with the Central Welfare Council and provided hiding places and forged documents for Jews.
September 6, 1943
Execution of Michał Kruk
Retired railway worker from Przemyśl; hung by the Germans for helping Jews.
September 9, 1992
Anna, Andrzej and Ludwika Antonik recognised as Righteous among the Nations
Anna, Andrzej and Ludwika (Janczura) Antonik from Lisie Jamy near Lubaczów saved Małka Stupp from the Holocaust. The family received the honour in September 2016 at the Museum of Poles Saving Jews.
September 13, 1963
Kazimiera and Michał Kreicar recognised as Righteous among the Nations
During the Holocaust, the Kreicar couple from Dubiecko rescued Wilhelm Reyk together with his wife and brother; also, Szmul Goldsztajn with his wife and two children; David Frenkel and his son, and Bronisław Felsen.
September 13, 1982
Krzysztof Dunin-Wąsowicz and his mother Janina recognised as Righteous among the Nations
Both were active in the Polish underground (Kazimierz fought in the Warsaw Uprising), collaborated with the Żegota Council to Aid Jews. In Warsaw they rescued, among others, Aleksander Artman and members of the Teichman family. After the war, Krzysztof became known as an outstanding historian and an expert on Warsaw.
September 13, 1995
Wiktoria and Józef Ulma recognised as Righteous among the Nations
During the Holocaust, Wiktoria and Józef gave shelter to 8 Jews from the Goldman, Grünfeld and Didner families. As a result of a denunciation, all of them were shot by German military policemen on 24th March 1944.
September 16, 1876
Chaim Eiss was born
Orthodox Jew born in Ustrzyki Dolne. During the Holocaust he lived in Zurich and became involved in the activity of the so-called Ładoś Group. Together with Polish diplomats in Bern he saved many Jewish lives with false passports from Latin American countries.
September 16, 1942
Maria Ulma was born
The youngest of the children of Victoria and Józef Ulma from Markowa. Together with her siblings, pregnant mother and father, as well as the hidden Jews from the Goldman, Grünfeld and Didner families, she was executed by German military police on 24th March 1944.
September 17, 1939
Soviet invasion of Poland
On that day, Soviet troops invaded Poland, which had been attacked two weeks earlier by Nazi Germany, and occupied its eastern part. Thus, Poland was divided between two totalitarian systems, Hitler’s and Stalin’s.
September 19, 1917
Andrzej Miłosz was born
During the Holocaust, he and his brother Czesław (an outstanding poet and Nobel Prize winner) established a transfer point for Jews hiding in Vilnius. Recognised as Righteous among the Nations.
September 19, 1985
Establishment of the Polish Society of the Righteous Among the Nations
The only organisation in Poland whose members are the Polish Righteous; it has its seat in Warsaw.
September 20, 1910
Helena Cwynar was born
Helena and Jan Cwynar from Markowa, together with her husband Jan, took in Abraham Segal, a teenage Jew from Łańcut, who stayed with them until the end of the war.
September 21, 2015
Anna Płonka recognised as Righteous among the Nations
During the German occupation, in Rzeszow, the teacher helped her friend Abraham Heinberg get out of the ghetto and go to forced labour in Germany. Heinberg, later known as Roman Harte, became a filmmaker after the war and collaborated with outstanding cinematographers in Poland and abroad.
September 24, 1939
Last entry in the diary kept by Basia Rosenberg from Przeworsk
It’s getting worse and worse. We are living in a warehouse now because the whole apartment was taken by two officers and servants. It was on the erev of Yom Kippur. We didn’t eat anymore. We had to move all the stuff into the warehouse. We have a bed and a couch here and we fit in somehow. Daddy’s sleeping on the ground (…)
Hope it doesn’t get any worse. Sadly, it looks like it might be.
They say the Russians have already occupied Polish land as far as Lviv and are going further. I hear there’s to be a border strip here, but you never know, everyone says differently.
Warsaw stands firm still and so does Lviv, they say (…)
We don’t know what’s going on right now. Apparently, Russia occupies Polish territory with the consent of Germany, at least that is what everyone is saying, but is it true…?
I hear terrible things are happening in Przemyśl. They shoot at Jews with no mercy. Many are taken away beyond the San without any provisions. In Jarosław, everyone must surrender the silver they have to the magistrate.
It’s a lot worse out there than at our place.
I just wish I could go to America.
September 25, 1986
Michał Mazur and Helena Szelewy-Kurasiewicz recognised as Righteous among the Nations
During the Holocaust, they hid Lejzor and Rubin Braten in Rudka near Jarosław.
September 26, 1967
Franciszka and Józef Zwonarz recognised as Righteous among the Nations
During the German occupation they hid Jaffa and Natan Woloch (Wallach) in Lesko.
September 27, 1942
Provisional Committee to Aid Jews was founded
Its founders were Zofia Kossak and Wanda Krahelska-Filipowicz. In December 1942 it was transformed into the Żegota Council to Aid Jews.
October 2, 1940
Establishment of the Warsaw ghetto
The largest Jewish ghetto in the General Government and in Nazi-occupied Europe, with as many as approx. 450,000 Jews. Eventually liquidated in May 1943.
October 6, 1937
Barbara Ulma was born
One of the six children of Wiktoria and Józef Ulma from Markowa. Together with her siblings, pregnant mother and father, as well as the hidden Jews from the Goldman, Grünfeld and Didner families, she was murdered by the German military police on 24th March 1944.
October 9, 1977
Helena Zelwerowicz and her father Aleksander recognised as Righteous among the Nations
Helena (Lena) Zelwerowicz, an actress and educator, and her father Aleksander Zelwerowicz, also an actor and educator, as well as a theatre director and manager, provided shelter to Jews. Those who survived the Holocaust thanks to them include Maria Nudel, Józef Orchoń (Nudel) and David Epstein.
October 6, 1903
Maurycy Herling-Grudziński was born
Lawyer, attorney and judge; brother of Gustaw, writer and literary critic. During the war, he and his wife Felicia were involved in helping Jews. He collaborated with Żegota and founded the Felicja Cell by means of which he provided shelter to about 500 Jews in his house in Warsaw.
October 6, 1991
Stanisława Laskowska recognised as Righteous among the Nations
During the Holocaust she hid Ewa Margulies and Rózia Schabes in Długie near Sanok.
October 8, 1903
Jadwiga Piotrowska was born
Social activist. During the German occupation she rescued Jewish children being active in Żegota and collaborating with Irena Sendler.
October 10, 1923
Marianna Krasnodębska née Jarosz was born
During the German occupation Marianna Krasnodębska, like her parents and siblings, was active in the resistance movement. The Germans murdered her four brothers for helping the partisans. The Jarosz family helped the local Jews inside the ghetto in the locality of Piaski supplying them with food, medicines and documents. They hid over dozen Jews at their homestead, including Józef Honig with his father and brother. Marianna, her brothers Aleksander and Maksymilian, and her parents Anna and Ignacy were recognised as Righteous Among the Nations.
October 10, 1907
Edward Kemnitz was born
Lawyer, social and right-wing political activist. During the German occupation he was a soldier of the Home Army and the National Armed Forces. Together with his father Wojciech he collaborated with Żegota. One of those he helped was Anula Rosenthal for whom he got false documents.
October 15, 1941
Imposition of the death penalty for Jews escaping ghettos and Poles aiding Jews
Death penalty was introduced in the territory of the General Government for Jews who without permission moved away from the districts designated for them and for Poles who helped Jews.
October 13, 1906
Tadeusz Rek was born
Polish lawyer, columnist and activist of the folk movement; 1940-1942 prisoner of Pawiak, Auschwitz-Birkenau and Neuengamme, and since 1942 a collaborator Żegota. Recognised as Righteous among the Nations.
October 16, 1988
Maria and Franciszek Hrycko recognised as Righteous among the Nations
During the German occupation, they saved Blima Schif by hiding her in their house in Dynów.
October 20, 1911
Irena Kanabus, née Budzilewicz, was born
Physician, anaesthesiologist and specialist in blood diseases in children; Warsaw insurgent. During the German occupation she and her husband Feliks Kanabus helped Jews by carrying out operations aimed at hiding the Semitic physiognomy.
October 21, 1981
Maria Wantuch and Wiktoria Podlasek recognised as Righteous among the Nations
In Gębiczyn near Pilzno, they saved Adela Wołek, and Leon and Mietek Schneps from extermination.
October 21, 2014
Franciszka and Franciszek Welcer, and Anna Szubrycht née Welcer recognised as Righteous among the Nations
During the German occupation they saved Jeszuła and Józef Guzik in Cergowa near Dukla.
October 25, 2009
Maria and Stanisław Dudek recognised as Righteous among the Nations
During the German occupation, in Odrzykon near Krosno, they took in Cipora Katz (Reem) and presented her as a Christian orphan adopted by them thus saving her from extermination.
October 26, 1980
Sisters from the Congregation of Servants of the Most Sacred Heart of Jesus in Przemyśl recognised as Righteous Among the Nations
During the German occupation Sis. Alfonsa (Eugenia Wąsowska Renot), Sis. Ligoria (Anna Grenda), Sis. Bernarda (Rozalia Sidełko) and Sis. Emilia (Leokadia Juśkiewicz) from the Congregation of Servants of the Most Sacred Heart of Jesus in Przemyśl saved Miriam Reinharz-Klein, Hedy Rosen, Julian Ostrowski, Zofia Horn, Beti Milczyn, Ahuva Lissn, Awiwa Fogelman, Edward Goldberg, Batia Fridman-Gortler, Hanki Rubin, Gabi Klein, Tzofi Fridman and Gabrieli Koren.
October 27, 1983
Jadwiga Boczar recognised as Righteous Among the Nations
Lawyer who lived in Rzeszow, at 4 Krakowska Street, during the war and helped Jews. When one of them was arrested by the Gestapo and gave Boczar away, she fled to Warsaw. Having settled right next to the ghetto, she continued to help the Jews, this time the Rozenholc siblings. She fought in the Warsaw Uprising.
October 28, 1963
Planting of the Żegota tree in the Garden of the Righteous in Jerusalem
The tree in honour of Żegota, the only state organisation in occupied Europe established to save Jews, was planted by Maria Kann and Władysław Bartoszewski – members of the Żegota Council to Aid Jews and Righteous Among the Nations.
October 28, 1982
Kazimiera and Wincenty Sołek recognised as Righteous among the Nations
The Sołek couple lived in Przeworsk were they hid Jerachmiel Bergner.
October 31, 1903
Czesław Szafraniec was born
Polish immigrant in France who helped members of the Jewish community in Paris together with his wife Maria. They helped Cywa Zylberberg, her mother Sylvana and David Zylberberg, who was Sylvana’s son. Maria and Czesław Szafraniec were recognised as Righteous Among the Nations.
November 1, 1941
Commencement of the construction of the death camp in Bełżec
Between March and December 1942 the Germans murdered about 450,000 people in the German death camp in Belzec, mainly Jews from Poland, but also from Germany, Austria, the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
November 6, 1996
Katarzyna and Eugeniusz Szyfner recognised as Righteous among the Nations
During the German occupation, Katarzyna Szyfner and her son Eugeniusz Szyfner, who both lived at an estate in Chorzelów near Mielec, saved Jankiel Heller, Maksymilian Gross as well as Matilda and Dawid Zuckerbrot.
November 8, 1906
Witold Bieńkowski was born
Politician, columnist, counterintelligence officer of the Home Army; from December 1942 in Żegota; member of the Department of Internal Affairs and head of the Jewish Section of the Government Delegation for Poland.
November 11, 1904
Andrzej Bogucki was born
Film and theatre actor; opera and popular singer. During the Holocaust, in Warsaw, he and his wife Janina rescued Władysław Szpilman, an outstanding pianist of Jewish descent.
November 16, 2018
Cecylia Roszak died
Polish nun, Dominican sister who died at the age of 110. During the German occupation, together with other Dominican sisters, she hid several people of Jewish descent in a monastery in Vilnius. Recognised as Righteous Among the Nations.
November 18, 1897
Tadeusz Gebethner was born
Sportsman, footballer, sports activist and publisher; co-owner of the bookshop and publishing house Gebethner and Wolff, soldier; Warsaw insurgent who died as a prisoner of war as a result of wounds sustained during the Warsaw Uprising. He helped, among others, the Abrahamer family whom he eventually managed to send to Hungary. Considered Righteous Among the Nations.
November 20, 1910
Feliks Kanabus was born
Doctor of surgery; during the war he arranged plastic surgery procedures to eliminate Semitic features in Jews. His wife Irena assisted in the operations as an anaesthesiologist. Both of them took part in the Warsaw Uprising. Both were recognised as Righteous Among the Nations.
November 24, 1942
Crime at Grzegorzówka in the Podkarpacie (Subcarpathian) region
German military police murdered four people for providing food to Jews hiding in the forest.
November 25, 1978
Zofia Franio died
Physician, officer of the Polish Army and resistance officer; Warsaw insurgent, commandant of women’s mine patrols. During the Holocaust, she helped Jews individually, hiding Anna Aszkenazy, among others, in her own home. At the same time she collaborated with the Żegota Council to Aid Jews providing medical care to Jews hiding in Warsaw.
November 28, 1978
Kazimiera Zięba died
Doctor of medicine, specialist in gynaecology. During the German occupation she was active in the underground and also collaborated with Żegota. She also helped a Gypsy family from Warsaw in hiding Jews. Years later she was recognised as Righteous Among the Nations together with that family.
December 1, 1939
Jews were ordered to wear an armband with the Star of David on the right arm
On that day, the German occupation authorities of the General Government issued an ordinance on the obligatory wearing of Star of David armbands by Jews. The Nazi authorities intended this marking to facilitate racial identification but also to humiliate and isolate the Jews from the rest of the society.
December 4, 1942
Establishment of the Żegota Council to Aid Jews
Established at the Government Delegation for Poland, Żegota was the only state organisation in all Europe under German occupation created in order to save Jews. The organisation included representatives of various social and political circles, both Poles and Jews. It is estimated that tens of thousands of people of Jewish descent were aided by Żegota.
December 5, 1938
Władysław Ulma was born
One of the six children of Wiktoria and Józef Ulma from Markowa. Together with his siblings and parents, as well as the hidden Jews from the Goldman, Grünfeld and Didner families, he murdered by the German military police on 24th March 1944.
December 5, 1911
Władysław Szpilman was born
Outstanding pianist and composer living in Warsaw. During the Holocaust, he lost his entire family. He himself was hidden by Poles, including Janina and Andrzej Bogucki, with the support of Witold Lutosławski. At a critical moment in his life Wehrmacht captain Wilm Hosenfeld spared him his life.
December 6, 1942
Execution at Ciepielów and Rekówka
For helping Jews, the Germans shot 31 Poles, including the Kowalski family of seven as well as members of the Kosior, Obuchiewicz and Skoczylas families. Almost all of them were burned alive.
December 6, 1894
Tadeusz Romer was born
Diplomat and politician; Polish ambassador to Japan and the USSR. Minister of Foreign Affairs in Stanisław Mikołajczyk’s government. He arranged aid for Polish refugees of Jewish origin in Japan and Shanghai.
December 7, 1942
Execution at Świesielice
Over a dozen residents of Świesielice were murdered by the Germans for supporting the resistance movement and helping Jews in hiding.
December 8, 1941
First transport of victims to the German death camp Kulmhof in Chełmno nad Nerem
The first German extermination camp on Polish soil, Kulmhof in Chełmno nad Nerem, was a mass extermination centre for Jews in Reichsgau Wartheland. Already in December 1941, about 700 Jews were killed there, poisoned with car exhaust fumes. It is estimated that between 150,000 and 350,000 victims were murdered during the camp’s operation.
December 10, 1903
Helena Zelwerowicz was born
Actress and educator. During the German occupation she and her parents helped Józef Ochroń, Helena and Hanna Caspari, Dawid Epstein, Leon Feiner, Maria Nudel and an unknown lawyer. Recognised as Righteous Among the Nations.
December 10, 1912
Wiktoria Ulma née Niemczak was born
The wife of Józef Ulma and mother of six children. She was in an advanced stage of pregnancy when she was murdered by German military police, together with her husband and children, for hiding the Jewish family of Goldman, Grünfeld and Didner, on 24th March 1944.
December 13, 1907
Jerzy Zagórski was born
Poet, essayist and translator. During the German occupation, he and his wife, Maryna Zagórska, hid several Jews at home in Warsaw, including the poet Tadeusz Hollender, teenager Janek Wilk and the Tenenbaum family. Both spouses were recognised as Righteous Among the Nations.
December 14, 1942
The largest execution of Markowa Jews
The Jews captured in roundups the day before were stored for the night in the basement of one of the houses in Markowa. In the morning German military policemen led everyone onto the so-called trench, on the outskirts of Markowa, and shot about 30 people in total.
December 15, 1886
Wanda Krahelska was born
Visual artist and publisher. Co-founder of the Provisional Committee to Aid Jews which was later transformed into the Żegota Council to Aid Jews.
December 18, 1942
Letter to Pope Pius XII sent by the President of the Republic of Poland Władysław Raczkiewicz
Letter addressed to the head of the Catholic Church in Vatican, in which the President of the Republic of Poland in exile asks for intervention concerning mass murders of Poles and Jews in German occupied Poland.
December 19, 1942
Fr Adam Sztark was killed
Jesuit, administrator of the sanctuary in Żyrowice and chaplain to the Sisters of the Immaculate Conception in the Słonim Convent. During the Holocaust, he called for helping Jews. He collected donations for their benefit, issued false christening certificates and repeatedly made his way to the ghetto. He also smuggled Jews outside and hid them in the rectory, in the nearby houses and in the monastery of the Immaculate Conception. Together with Sisters of the Immaculate Conception Ewa Noiszewska and Marta Wołowska he was arrested by the Germans and then killed. Several dozen other Poles lost their lives with them.
December 16, 2006
Eugeniusz Łazowski died
Doctor; professor of paediatrics. During the German occupation he worked in Rozwadów. He often got into the ghetto to treat the Jews who were gathered there. When another doctor and a friend of his, Stanisław Matulewicz, discovered that positive result of typhus test could be obtained using certain harmless bacteria, Łazowski started to use the vaccine to simulate an epidemic and thus keep the Germans away from the local population. Thereby he saved many inhabitants of Rozwadów and the surrounding area including many Jews from the nearby ghetto.
December 25, 1980
Kazimiera Żuławska and her son Jerzy Wawrzyniec recognised as Righteous among the Nations
Mountain lovers – both Kazimiera (Romance philologist and translator) and her son Jerzy Wawrzyniec (musicologist, writer and composer) were climbing enthusiasts. During the German occupation they saved at least seven people by hiding them in their Warsaw flat.
December 26, 1903
Stefan Ryniewicz was born
Diplomat, counsellor and deputy head of the Polish Delegation in Bern in the years 1938-1945; member of the so-called Ładoś Group which rescued European Jews during the Holocaust using false passports of Latin American countries.
December 27, 1891
Aleksander Ładoś was born
Politician, diplomat, clerk and columnist. In Bern, where he was the Polish ambassador, he created an organisation, later known as the Ładoś Group, by bringing together several Polish diplomats and representatives of the local Jewish communities. The group saved Jews from all over occupied Europe by means of false passports from Latin American countries.
December 28, 1909
Wacław Zagórski was born
Journalist, Home Army soldier, participant in the Warsaw Uprising, veteran activist and author of war memoirs. During the German occupation he and his wife Barbara helped Anna Bajer Dratner and Irena Filozof as well as some others in Warsaw. After the war, both of them were recognised as Righteous Among the Nations.
December 29, 1963
Aleksander Ładoś died
Politician, diplomat, clerk and columnist. In Bern, where he was the Polish ambassador, he created an organisation, later known as the Ładoś Group, by bringing together several Polish diplomats and representatives of the local Jewish communities. The group saved Jews from all over occupied Europe by means of false passports from Latin American countries.
December 29, 1992
Maria Cap recognised as Righteous among the Nations
During the German occupation, she rescued Jakub Berger and Laura Bogaczewska in Przemyśl.
December 30, 1995
Maria Kann died
Writer, author of books for children, social activist and independence activist, member of Żegota. Together with Władysław Bartoszewski, in 1963 she planted a tree in honour of this organization in the Garden of the Righteous in Jerusalem.